What is the easiest way to tell the difference between Spanish and Catalan/Valenciano?

Most Spanish nouns end in „a“ or „o“ in the singular or in „as“ or „os“ in the plural.

Words that end in „tion“ or „tions“ as in English, such as nation/nations, construction/constructions, action/actions, etc., end in „ción“ or „ciones“ in Spanish. Example: Construcción/Construcciones.

Catalan nouns are less likely to end in „a“, „o“, „as“ or „os“.

The endings „tion“ or „tions“ are „ció“ or „cions“ in Catalan/Valenciano. Example: Construcció/Construccions.

If you only read „ajuntament“ at your town hall and do not see the Spanish word „ayuntamiento“ anywhere, then you know that they are already trying to displace Spanish here, although it is one of the official languages according to the respective constitutions of the autonomous communities.

The official languages in Catalonia are Spanish, Catalan and Aran. In Valencia it is Spanish and Valenciano.